Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu on 14 January 1969
Tamil Nadu (/tæmɪl nɑːduː/ (tam-il-nah-doo; pronunciation, literally “Tamil Country”) is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras), the largest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Mannar, the Palk Strait in the south east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south.
Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area and the seventh most populous state. It is the second largest state economy in India as of 2012. The state ranked 6th among states in India according to the Human Development Index as of 2011. The state has the highest number (10.56 per cent) of business enterprises and stands second in total employment (9.97 per cent) in India, compared to the population share of about 6 per cent.
The region has been the home of the Tamil people since at least 500 BCE and is currently the only official homeland of Tamils anywhere in the world. Its official language Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for over 3,800 years.Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Tamil Nadu possesses the second largest economy (2012–13) among states in India after Maharashtra. It is the second most industrialised state next to Maharastra. As of 2010–11 Tamil Nadu had a Per Capita GDP of $1,622, the sixth highest in India. Tamil Nadu’s gross state domestic product for the year 2011–2012 was 4.28 trillion (short scale) or $145,868 Million. The state has shown a growth of 9.4% in the year 2011–2012.
According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49%), accounting for 9.6% of the urban population while only comprising 6% of India’s total population. Services contributes to 45% of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34% and agriculture at 21%. Government is the major investor in the state with 51% of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9% and foreign private investors at 14.9%. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure. It has been ranked first by the Economic Freedom Rankings for the States of India
Location of Tamil Nadu in India
Coordinates: 13.09°N 80.27°ECoordinates: 13.09°N 80.27°E
Established 26 January 1950†
Largest city Chennai
Districts 32 total
• Governor Mr. Konijeti Rosaiah
• Chief Minister Ms. J.Jayalalitha (AIADMK)
• Legislature Unicameral (234 seats)
• Chief Justice Mr. M. Yusuf Eqbal
• Total 130,058 km2 (50,216 sq mi)
Area rank 11th
• Total 72,138,958
• Rank 7th
• Density 550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-TN
HDI 0.570 (medium)
HDI rank 6th (2011)
Literacy 80.3 per cent (2011 census)
Official language Tamil
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